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Bursa Travel Guide

Bursa

Bursa, BC Has been one of the few civilizations since the years and the rareest cradle of their religion. Many works belonging to the religions of Islam, Christianity and Judaism are still standing and protected. Especially M.S. Eight of the consul meetings, which were held 17 times until the year of 324 and which were very important for the Christian religion, were held in our country. The first and seventh were held in İznik. Iznik is one of the 8 sacred pilgrim centers in our country and most important in Christian religion. History of the Bursa region BC The chalcolithic turn, which contains 5000-3500 years, stretches. In the archeological surveys in the region, some remnants of this turnaround have been obtained. Later on, the Phrygian, Roman, Byzantine city dwelt under the dominance of Seljuks and Ottomans. With the Republic declared on October 29, 1923, Bursa became a province that continued to develop as a culture, industry and agriculture center.

Bursa General Information

Bursa and its environs from the heavenly corners of Anatolia have been the scene of settlements since ancient times. It was discovered in the excavations of Ilipinar Höyük, that the civilizations created by the old settlements in the region went to 7 thousand years ago. As a result of the excavations in the mound, BC. A settlement area descending down to 5200 years ago was found. 7 km from Bursa. North of the Demirtaş province. South, 90 m. The surrounding area is 5 m. The "Demirtaş Höyüğü", which is at the height. In this höyük there are usually hand, small amounts of pottery, pottery and pottery made from the wheel. These are early bronze remnants of the BC. It is dated to 2500 years. The dimensions of "Çayırköy Höyüğü", which is 14 km west of the city and 1 km southwest of Çayırköyü, are the same dimensions as Demirtaş Höyüğü. The ceramic pieces found here are dominated by gray, red, brown and black colors. Significant parts of the ceramics found were made in hand, very few were made in the wheel. The oldest find of the mound was found in the. It belongs to the year 2700. B.C. The city was founded by the Bithynians and Prussians in the 3rd century BC, and the first name was "Prusa". Bursa, which is also known as "Bitinya" in written sources, and the oldest settlements in the surrounding area are located around Iznik Lake. There are only seven important mounds found around the Iznik Lake and during the stone era. Ilıpınar near Orhangazi and its 750 m. Hacılartepe Höyüğü in the east, Tepecik Höyüğü in Yeniköy suburb of Orhangazi-İznik road and Körüstan, Üyücek Tepe, Höyücek and Karadin mounds in the east of İznik Lake. Yenisehir Babasultan Höyüğü with the Dogutepe Akhisar mounds located 3 km east of the Cumatepe höyüğü in İnegöl city center points to settlements belonging to prehistoric times. Demirtaş Village Höyüğü and the remains of Dorak Village and Tahtali Village of M. Kemalpaşa indicate that the Bursa region is an important civilization area for at least five thousand years.

Establishment of Prusa (Bursa)

Bursa region, BC. In the 4th century BC the Bithynia state lived under the sovereignty of various colonies and countries until it was established. According to Famous Herodotus History, the only city that existed in that time around Bursa and its vicinity is Cius / Gemlik. The foundation of the city of Cius BC. It extends to the 12th century. The city of Apamea / Mudanya, BC. It is believed to have been established in the 10th century. Apollonia / Gölyazı, located on a island on the Uluabat Lake, It is thought to have been established before the 6th century. In the period of Krezus / Kroisos (561-546 BC), the Bursa region, which was ruled by the Lydians, was later met by the Persian / Iranian rule. The Bursa region was very destroyed during these wars. Dedalses founded an independent Bithynia State in the Bursa region by fighting against the Iranians. Botiras son of Dedalses and his son Bas / Byas (378-328 BC) are considered to be the first king of Bithynia kingdom. B.C. In the 2 nd century BC, the ancient Miletopolis in Melde Tepesi near M.Kemalpaşa, Basilinopolis in Orhangazi, Pythopolis in Ortolia, Adriani in Orhaneli, Kremastis in Karacabey, Daskylium in Eşkel, Plai in Cekirge, Brillos in Kurşunlu and Nicaea in Iznik were established. It was during the reign of Bithynia king Prusias I (232-192 BC) that Bursa rises to the city and its surroundings are surrounded by the city walls. King Hannibal of Carthage took refuge in I. Prusias with his soldiers when he lost his battle with the Roman emperor. Hannibal, after having a great reputation by Prusias I, founded the city of Bursa in honor of him. This is why the city was named Prusa. The exact location of the first settlement close to the city center dates back to BC. It shows 2500 - 2700 years. In the time of the emperorship of I. Prusias, known as the founder of today's Bursa, the city was named Bursa of Uludağ (Prusa ad Olympium) and a woman statue and ostotek were found from that marble. In the time of Emperor Justinianus (527-565), new baths were built in Pythia (Cekirge). In 1935, vaulted rooms were found in the fortress. The basement mosaic of the early Byzantine period, located in the Castle Gate in the Hisar, is an important archaeological remains. Tophane has a Byzantine chapel and mosaics of monasteries. Prusa (Bursa) between 1204-1261 continued to live as a dull monument to Nikaia (Iznik). B.C. The Bithynia kingdom, which was linked to Rome in 74 years, remained under Roman rule for many years. Bursa and its vicinity, which lasted for the Romans and then as a province of the Byzantines, were referred to as Bithynia Principality or Kingdom by foreign sources even during the Ottoman period. Today, the most rich Byzantine tombstone stalks and various pieces of architectural pieces, ceramics and coins are exhibited in the Bursa Archeology Museum. Bursa, during the first 200 years of the Ottoman Empire, showed great developments compared to other cities and was decorated with many architectural structures; Became the center of the scientific community with the well-known medrese of devrin. Hüdavendigar Kulliye, which started from the time of Murad I, Yıldırım Complex, which was built by I. Beyazid, started in the period of I. Mehmed (Çelebi) The Green Complex is a large complex that affects the spatial development of Bursa and is still standing today. Prior to Bursa and its vicinity, it was called Bithynia. The southern part of Uludağ and the western part were referred to as Mysia. The Bithynians living in the Bursa region were of Thracian origin. When it was located on the transit point of Asia and Europe, very different peoples settled in the region. Before the Bithyns, the Bebryks lived in the area. Then the Mysies came. The Bithyns are often referred to as the Thracians of Asia, as they are attached to Thrace customs and traditions. The language they speak is understood from the documents that say Thrakze. However, with the influence of the Greek colonies, the people of Bithynia grew slowly. Before Bithyn, Bebryk was in the region and Mygdon was spoken in the east. In the west, the Mysia language was spoken. It is known that the Byzantines settled a large number of Serbs and Bulgarians in and around Bursa in the 12th century. When the Ottomans came to this region, they found Orthodox Christians, from various ethnic groups in and around Bursa. It is also necessary to state that the Ottomans took Bursa and the city was only in the fortress. Orhan Gazi took the city out of the citadel and built a new city outside the city walls, forming the core of today's Bursa. Public buildings such as schools, hospitals, bridges, soup kitchens, caravanserais, baths were built and housing areas were created in their surroundings and a settlement tradition was initiated and the foundations of today's "Green Bursa" were laid.

The arrival of Turks in the Bursa region

Muslims first came to Bursa during the time of the Abbasids (Harun Rashid). In 955, Hamedans in Aleppo captured Bursa and ruled Bursa for 23 years. It is seen that Turks came to Bursa region after 1081 for the first time. Iznik was the capital of the Anatolian Seljuk State in 1081-1097. In 1097, the region became the scene of the Crusades. The Iznik crossed the Crusaders. During a period organized by Alexias Kommenos (1097), the Turks took Bursa for the first time. During these wars, when the Latin government was established in Istanbul, the capital of the Byzantine Empire became Iznik. The Iznik Byzantine Empire founded by Theodor Laskaris in 1204, continued to exist until 1261. When the Latins invaded Istanbul, the Byzantine princes took Bursa in cooperation with Muslim rulers to get rid of this new enemy. Bursa, which remained in the hands of the Greeks until 1214, was emperor II due to the reluctance of the people in the resistance against the Muslims. He came to Andronicos' wrath. Many of the people were plundered and some of them were given exile and death penalty. II. Andronikos was able to hold Bursa by this violence method until he was able to defeat the Latins and provide empire recognition. From Beylik to the State (Osman Gazi Revolution 1299-1324) Osman Bey, the founder and first sultan of the Ottoman State, is the son of Ertuğrul Gazi. According to other bears, the Ottoman Empire had a very important advantage in being a neighbor to the Christian land, which soon brought them into a great empire. Having seen the great contribution of the dervishes in the establishment of the Ottoman State, Osman Bey gave many dervishes in Bursa and its surroundings for this reason. He also received the daughter of Sheikh Edebali, the most important dervishes of the region. Osman Bey, who was enriched by the wars he did in the Byzantine lands; Karacahisar, Yarhisar took İnegöl. In 1302, he made Yenisehir the center of the state. He surrounded Iznik and Bursa, but lost his life without taking it. According to his will, the Silver Dome (Saint Elia Monastery) in Tophane was buried. There was very little property on his death as private property.

Conquest of Bursa

When Osman Bey was wrecked near the village of Dimboz / Erdoğan, the united armies of Byzantine tekfurlar in 1308, Bursa had come to the front. After this date, one of the towers had been built in order to see Bursa surrounded by one of them, in the face of Sukhumlu Hamam, under the command of Ak Timur, and in the place of the former Mollaarap School, under the command of Balaban Bey. To secure the back of Bursa in 1325 Orhaneli Castle was desperate to conquer the conquest. April 6 He delivered Bursa to Orhan Bey on 1326. Thus, Bursa, not a sword of a sword, "vire" referred to as the delivery of the Turks in the hands passed. At that time, the most important war-torn qualities used for lowering the qualities of the city were the use of towers to prevent entry and exit, as there were no guns or rifles. Thus, leaving the castle population hungry, cutting water, the cities were seized without bloodshed. This method called "vire" was applied in the seizure of Bursa, the people who were hungry and thirsty were uprooted against the tekfura and the city was delivered to the Ottoman Empire without bloodshed. The son of Osman Bey, the founder of the Ottoman State and the second sultan of the state, Orhan Bey, became the father of his father in 1320. He conquered Mudanya in 1321 and Bursa on 6 April 1326, and in 1324 he passed on the throne. Byzantine armies were destroyed in Pelekanon near Istanbul in 1329. Orhan Gazi who delivered Iznik in 1331 moved the capital of the Ottomans to İznik for 5 years. Orhan Gazi, who benefited from the internal turmoil in Byzantium in 1353, took the Çimpe kalesin in Gelibolu. He passed through Gelibolu and seized Tekirdag with all Marmara coasts. He made the first legal regulations that constitute the foundations of the state. He organized the army. He brought tax laws. For the first time, he put money on his behalf. Orhan Gazi, who was the wife of Bilecik Tekfurun's daughter Nilufer Hatun and the Asporca and Byzantine emperor Thedora, got a lot of monumental artifacts such as mosque, hamam, bridge, fountain, mint and madrasah. Orhan Gazi lost his life in 1360. He was buried in Tophane near his father.
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