Most of the eastern Anatolian Region is in the Erzurum-Kars and Upper Murat-Van regions (a small section in the north, a small section in the Eastern Black Sea, a small section in the Upper Euphrates region of the Eastern Anatolia Region) and the central city. 39 ° 10'-40 ° 57 'north east latitudes with 40 ° 15'-42 ° 35' eastern longitudes, Rize and Artvin from the north; Kars and Agri from the east; Erzincan and Bayburt from the west; It is surrounded by Mush and Bingöl in the south.
Surface Shapes; 64% of the Erzurum lands located in the most mountainous and rugged region of Turkey are mountains, 32% are flat, 4% are plains. In the north, the Rize Mountains, which form the easternmost edge of the outer margin of the Eastern Black Sea Mountains and have peaks above them (Üçdoruk Hill 3,709 m, Kırklar Mountain 3,552 m, Kaçkar Mountain 3,932 m, Mihrap Mountain 2,950 m, Akdağ 2,662 m) In the west, Kop (2.918 m), Mescit (3.239 m), Dumanli (2.447 m), Kılıçkaya (2.679 m), which also form the interior of the same mountains; Bingöl Mountains in the south (2,886 m); Karasu Aras Mountains (2.854 m) in the east, Gavur Mountain (3.200 m) Ardahan Plateau and Palandöken Dağı (3.176 m) to the south of Dumlu Mountain (3.169 m) are the main elevations. The mountains extending in the east-west direction and drawing a wide arc towards Central Anatolia, approach each other very close to Erzurum boundaries. Erzurum (520 km2), Pasinler (420 km2) and Aşkale plains, which are elevated from the sea level and ranging from 1.750 to 2.000 m, are fertile agricultural areas covered with thick alluvial strata in the provincial soils of Karasu, Aras and Çoruh rivers. The Çoruh River (466 km, 442 km in Turkey border), originating from the western slopes of the Mescit Mountain, passes to the Gümüşhane lands in the west, first to the north, then to the east and then back to Erzurum. It flows towards the east along the Coruh Valley and headed towards Artvin. The Aras River (1.509 km, 548 km in length within the borders of Turkey), which is born on the northern slopes of the Bingöl Mountains and is fed by the waters descending from the surrounding mountains, takes the Zivin tea to the east of Hasankale, Khorasan to the east of the Pasinler Plain and goes to Kars territory. The Karasu River (460 km), which was born from the Dumlu Mountain in the north of the city center, flooded the plains of Erzurum and Aşkale. He crosses the narrow, deep gorges between Kop and Mayram mountains and enters Erzincan. The main and the most important lake of the province and the Tortum Lake (18 km2) in the north are the consequences of the dike-blockage of a deep bed with a broad base. The Tortum Stream, which draws an arc to the east, forms a 50 m high Tortum Caglayan near the border of Artvin.
Climate and Vegetation Cover; Erzurum, which is in the whole region, is under the influence of the land climate. Daily and annual temperature differences are high. The winters are hard, cold and long; The summers are warm and dry. The annual temperature average of 6 ° C reflects the characteristic of hard-land climate. The coldest lunar month (average -8.6 ° C), the warmest month agustostur (mean 19.6 ° C). In winter, the temperature is below 0 ° C during December, January and February. In summer, temperature is rarely above 30 ° C. Until today, the highest temperature measured on the day is 34 ° C (1954), the lowest temperature is -30.1 ° C (1954). The number of days under 0 ° C is 154, the number of days under -1 ° C is 61, and the number of days over 30 ° C is 8. The average annual precipitation is 452.8 mm. The highest precipitation occurs in the spring (mean 60 mm), the lowest in the summer (24.7 mm) seasons. The most rainy month (73.5 mm), the driest month agustostor (18.6 mm), where the precipitation varies depending on the elevation. The average number of rainy days is 120.4, the number of snowy days is 49, the number of snowy days is 113, and the number of frosty days is 154. The dominant wind direction is southwest (the lodos), and the western and eastern winds are in places.
It is very poor in terms of vegetation, and the green areas have been turned into violent ones as a result of opening settlements and agricultural lands for centuries. The forest cover grows in the higher parts of the mountains in the north and north-east. The lower limit of the forest, which started with oak communities in the form of shrubs at an average of around 2,000 m, leaves its place in the deciduous forests of yellowish pebbles. Alpine vegetation (mountain meadows) starts after the upper limit of the forest, which ends at 2,600 m. The total share of the forests on the province's surface area is only 6%.
Economics; The basic economic activity is the agriculture and animal husbandry. However, the mountainous and rugged formations of provincial lands cover only 11% of the area of planted-planted areas due to the unfavorable climatic conditions. The first order of grain production is wheat and barley; In the production of legumes, take vetch and beans. Potato meets 5.6% of Turkey's production. The main industrial plant that is planted is sugar beet. Vegetables have not improved much. The production meets the local need (watermelon, melon, cucumber, tomato, pumpkin etc. from cabbage, spinach, lettuce, legumes from beans, kidney beans, pods, onions from tubers and root vegetables, carrots, radishes and garlic). Fruit and viticulture are also limited as vegetable production (apple, pear, apricot, walnut, mulberry, grape, sour cherry).
Erzurum, which is located in Turkey's leading animal husbandry region (Northeast Anatolia), is also the center of livestock trade. Cattle farming is important, as opposed to many provinces, where cattle fields cover 52% of the area. While livestock are being sold mainly to big centers such as Istanbul, Ankara, Adana and Kayseri, animal animals such as Erzincan, Kars and Ağrı come from animals. Poultry and beekeeping are in a rapid development. A total of 1,060 tons of honey are obtained from 111,650 beehives per year.