Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic of Turkey and the great leader of the Turkish War of Independence and Turkish Revolutions, took the initiative in order to win the independence of the Turkish homeland and the revolution that he carried out in order to bring the Turkish nation to the level of contemporary civilization lasted for 57 years. Has also passed away forever.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is a great leader who made Turkey a member of contemporary civilization with all its institutions and the history of humanity. The idea of ??making a mausoleum that would reflect the glory of all along and reflect the principles and reforms and the thoughts of contemporaryization has appeared as the common request of the Turkish people in deep sadness of losing Atatürk and it has been decided to construct.
The name of Anıttepe was Rasattepe due to the presence of the observation station before the Anıtkabir was built.
On this hill, there were tumuli (grave buildings) belonging to the Phrygian civilization that established the state in Anatolia in the 12th century BC. After the decision to make Anıtkabir in Rasattepe, archaeological excavations were carried out to remove these tumuli. The artifacts derived from these tumuli are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
CONSTRUCTION OF ANITKABIR
After the determination of the Anıtkabir project, expropriation studies were initiated in the first stage so that construction could begin. The construction of Anıtkabir began with a grand ceremony on October 9, 1944. The construction of Anıtkabir was done in 4 phases within a period of 9 years.
First Section Construction: 1944-1945
The first part, including the construction of the earth level and the lion’s head retaining wall, began on 9 October 1944 and was completed in 1945.
Part Two Construction: 1945-1950
The second part, which included the construction of auxiliary buildings surrounding the mausoleum and the ceremony, was completed on August 8, 1950, beginning on 29 September 1945. At this stage, it was decided to prepare the “basic project” of the mass of the monument, taking into consideration the reduction of the basic pressure according to the masonry and reinforced concrete construction system of the construction. Until the end of 1947, the basic excavation and isolation of the mozzolin was completed and the iron-erection of the 11-meter-high reinforced concrete foundation system, which would prevent any collapse, has come to an end.
An important part of the road layout with the entrance halls, the nursery, the afforestation work and the irrigation system of the land have been completed.
Third Part Construction: 1950
The construction of the third part of the mausoleum covered the monumental roads, the lion’s path, the ceremonial square and stone flooring of the mausoleum floor, the construction of stair steps, the replacement of the sarcophagus and the installation work.
Fourth Section Construction: 1950-1953
The 4th building of Anıtkabir included the construction of the hall of honor, the vaulting of the vault, and the formation of stone ornaments around the hall of honor. The fourth part of construction began on November 20, 1950 and was completed on September 1, 1953.
“Anıtkabir Project” had a section on the vault rising above the mozolenin colonnade. On December 4, 1951, the government asked the architects whether it would be possible to finish the building more quickly with the reduction of the height of 28 m.
Architects reported that it was possible to cover the hall of honor with a reinforced concrete ceiling instead of a stone vault at the end of their work. Thus, the weight of the vault construction and the technical disadvantages that would arise from it were rising.
In Anıtkabir construction, it is used as an outer covering material on concrete, easily processed porcelain, travertine in various colors and marble in mosaic coatings.
The white travertines used in sculpture groups, lion sculptures and mausoleum columns were brought from Pınarbaşı District of Kayseri and the white travertines used on the inner walls of the yacht were taken from Polatlı and Malıköy. The black and red travertines brought from Kayseri Bogazköprü area were used in the ground floor of the ceremony hall and the pavilions, the yellow travertines brought from Çankırı Eskipazar, victory reliefs, the hall of honor, the walls and the columns surrounding the ceremony place.
The cream, red and black marbles used on the floor of the honor hall were brought from Çanakkale, Hatay and Adana, the tiger post used in the inner side walls of honor hall from Afyon, green marble Bilecik. The monolithic sarcophagus weighing 40 tons was brought from Afyon, while the white marble covering the side walls of the sarcophagus from Osmaniye District of Adana.
ARCHITECTURAL PROPERTIES OF ANITKABIR
It is called “the 2nd National Architecture Period” between 1940-1950 in Turkish architecture. In this period, the monuments which emphasize the monumental aspect and which emphasize symmetry were used. Anıtkabir carries the characteristics of this period.
Along with these period features, Seljuk and Ottoman architectural features and decoration items are frequently found in Anıtkabir.
For example, in the outer façades, where the walls are joined with the roof, there is a border called sawtooth in the Seljuk stone work that surrounds the towers on four sides. In addition, in some parts of the Anıtkabir (Mehmetcik Tower, Museum Directorate) used in the stone carvings and rosettes called the stone ornaments Selçuklu and Ottoman art is also striking.
One of the best examples of this period, Anıtkabir covers an area of ??750.000 m² and is divided into two parts as Peace Park and Memorial Park.
A- PEACE PARK
Mausoleum; Inspired by Atatürk’s words “Peace at Home, Peace of Peace”, it is rising in the Peace Park, which is made up of various foreign countries and saplings brought from some parts of Turkey.
A wide variety of products are exported from Afghanistan, USA, Germany, Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, Finland, France, India, Iraq, England, Spain, Israel, Sweden, Italy, Japan, Canada, Cyprus, Egypt, Norway, Portugal, Yugoslavia and Greece Trees and seedlings were brought. Today there are approximately 48,500 ornamental trees, shrubs and ornamental plants from 104 different species in the Peace Park.
B- ANIT BLOKU
The Anıtkabir Memorial Block consists of three parts.
1- Lean Road
2- Ceremonial Square
When you enter the Anitkabir from the gate of Tandoğan, you can reach to the 26 steps wide staircase along the Aslanlı Road from the road that runs through the Peace Park. At the very beginning of the ladder there is mutual independence and freedom.
Within the Anitkabir building community, there are ten towers placed symmetrically. Names representing these supreme concepts have been given to these societies, which have great influence on the formation of our nation and our state. Towers are similar in plan and structure. Close to the square 12 x 14 x 7,20 m. It is covered with pyramid roofs over towers built on a rectangular plan in dimensions. There are bronze spearheads found in the ancient Turkish tents in the hills of the çilitar. The geometric ornaments from the old Turkish kilim designs were applied in the fresco technique.
In addition, on the inner walls of the pavilions, there is a composition about the name of the slave and the concise words of Atatürk.
In the relief on the inner walls of the Istiklal Tower on the right hand side of the lion, there is an eagle figure standing on a rock beside a genus standing and holding a sword with two hands. Eagle has been portrayed as a symbol of power, independence and independence in mythology and Seljuk art. The young man holding the sword represents the Turkish nation defending independence. The relief is the work of Zuht Müridoğlu.
In addition, as the writing border on the tower walls, Ataturk’s words about independence are mentioned:
“The voice of our ancestors, who invited his son to rise up against his imprisonment, rose up in our hearts and called us to the last War of Independence, when our nation seemed to end with the most terrible destruction.” (1921)
“Life means war, collision, success in life is absolutely possible with success in battle.” (1927)
“We are a nation that wants life and independence, and we are alone and only for our lives.” (1921)
“There is no such thing as begging for compassion and compassion, the Turkish nation, the children of Turkey in the future, should not forget it for a moment.” (1927)
“This nation will not live, live, and live as deprived of independence, either independence or death.” (1919)
Inside the building there are light panels with anıtkabir model and Anıtkabir.
In the relief inside the Hürriyet Tower, which is at the left of the Aslanlı Road; With an angelic figure holding paper in his hand, and a horse with a mockingbird. The figure of angel symbolizes the sanctity of independence, the paper “Hürriyet Beyannamesi”. Horse figure is the symbol of freedom and independence. The relief is the work of Zuht Müridoğlu.
On the walls of the tower, Ataturk wrote the following words about liberty.
“The essence is that the Turkish nation lives as a respectable and honorable nation.This principle can only be achieved by having full independence.A nation that is deprived of independence no matter how rich and abundant it can not be entitled to a high level of labor in the face of civilized humanity. (1927)
“I think it is possible that a nation of honor, honor, honor and humanity can always be found if it has the freedom and independence of that nation.”
“Your freedom, your equality, your national sovereignty on which justice is based.”
“We are a nation that symbolizes freedom and independence in all our historical experience.”
In the tower there are photographs showing the construction works of Anıtkabir and stone samples used in construction.
WOMEN SCULPTURE GROUP
There is a group of statues of three females dressed in national clothes in front of the Istiklal tower. These women hold a thick wreath that stretches from side to side. The wreath that the bundles of the birds bring to the field represents our fertile homeland. The woman on the left is crying to the Atatürk with the cup in his hand that he has stretched forward, offering mercy from the gods, the middle woman covering his face with his hand.
This trio expresses the fact that Turkish women are proud, dignified and determined even in the deep pain of Atatürk’s death. The sculpture group is the work of Hüseyin Özkan.
MALE SCULPTURE GROUP
In front of Hürriyet Kulesi there is a group of sculptures consisting of three men. While representing a Turkish soldier with a helmet and a thick bonnet on the right, the Turkish youth and intellectuals were represented with a book beside him, and the Turkish village was represented with local costumes. All three sculptures have been expressed with the deep pain of the Turkish nation’s unique stature and high power of will. The sculpture group is the work of Hüseyin Özkan.
In the middle of the entrance stairs to the 28-digit ceremony in the direction of Anıtkabir’s Çankaya, the Turkish flag waved on a single piece high pole. The 33.53 m. This pole at the height is the highest of the single-piece steel flagpoles in Europe. 4 meters of the force is under the scale. It was manufactured by Nazmi Cemal, a Turkish-American citizen living in America, in his flag pole factory and presented to Anıtkabir in 1946. In the ruffle on the base of the flagpole; The torch symbolizes Turkish civilization, the sword attack power, the helmet defense power, the victory of the oak victory, and the olive branch. The Turkish flag is fluctuating over its supreme values ??such as defending our country, winning victory, establishing peace and civilization. The relief is the work of Kenan Yontuç.
MISAK-I NATIONAL CLUB
The relief inside this hoop at the entrance of the museum symbolizes that we are not locked in one body. The relief is a four-sided overlaid on a sword’s navel. This composition expresses the national memorial for the rescue of the Turkish homeland. The relief is the work of Nusret Suman.
On the walls of the kulin, Atatürk’s words about the National Pact are written:
“The nation who wrote our liberation is the iron ruler of the nation who wrote it on the historical stage.” (1923)
“We want to live free and independent within our national borders.” (1921)
“Nations that can not find the national self are the hunters of other nations.” (1923)
In the middle of the use of the delegations participating in the ceremonies performed at Anıtkabir, a signature book is included for the signature of the special book. Photographs of important ceremonies held at Anıtkabir are exhibited in the actuarial panels in this club which is the entrance of the museum.
The visitors were 262 meters long to prepare for the supreme presence of Ataturk. There are 24 lion sculptures in the position sitting on both sides of the road in the length. Because of Atatürk’s importance to Turkish and Anatolian history, the lion sculptures made with the art style of the Hittites, who established civilization in Anatolia, represent strength and calmness. The sculptures are the work of Hüseyin Özkan.
At the end of the lion, the ceremony square is 129 x 84.25 m. Dimensions. 15.000 people capacity; Decorated with 373 carpets and kilim designs consisting of travertine stones in black, red, yellow and white colors.
At the end of the lion’s path, the Mehmetçik Tower is on the right. On the outer surface of the wool, It is expressed that Mehmetçi who is going to the frontier leaves his house. In this comic, a sad, but proud mother who has put her hand on her shoulder and sends her to battle for the homeland is portrayed. The relief is the work of Zuht Müridoğlu.
On the walls of the hull are the words that Ataturk said about Mehmetçik and Turkish women:
“Heroic Turks have fought with a new country, the concept of the meaning of Anatolian wars.” (1921)
“There is no place anywhere in the world to speak of women’s work on any Anatolian peasant woman.” (1923)
“The children of this nation can not have a unit of measure for their self-sacrifice, heroism.”
In the wake; Various books and gift items about Anıtkabir and Ataturk are presented to visitors.
ATATÜRK AND THE TURKISH REVOLUTION LIBRARY
Located between the houses of Mehmetçik and Victory; “Atatürk and Turkish Revolution Library” is located in the section of the museum, library and Cultural Activities Directorate. As a “Specialized Library” where books on Turkish and foreign languages ??are written about Atatürk, national struggle and revolutions, researchers and readers from all walks serve between 09.00-12.30 / 13.30-17.00 on weekdays.
On the walls of the kulin, the three most important triumphs of Ataturk are written with the very words of history and victory.
In the tower, the top car of Ataturk was taken from the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul on November 19, 1938 and delivered to the navy in Sarayburnu.
In the middle of the gallery formed by open columns between the Peace and Victory Towers, there is the symbolic sarcophagus of Ataturk’s closest weapon friend who died on 25 December 1973, the commander of the Western Front of the Turkish National Struggle and the second President İsmet İnönü. The burial chamber is on the bottom.
İsmet İnönü was buried with the Decree of the Council of Ministers on 28 December 1973 in Anıtkabir.
There is a relief composition on Ataturk’s inner wall which expresses the principle of “Peace at Home, Peace in the World”. In this relief, a soldier figure depicting farming peasants and guarding them by extending a sword on their side was depicted. This soldier symbolizes the Turkish army, which is a safe and secure source of peace. In this way, people continue their daily lives in a peaceful environment provided by the Turkish army. The relief is the work of Nusret Suman.
On the walls of the tower are the words of Atatürk about peace.
“Citizens of the world should be educated in such a way as to get away from jealousy and greed.” (1935)
“Peace at Home, Peace in Jihad.”
“The battle is a murder unless the nation’s life is in danger.” (1923)
In the wake of the 1935-1938 years, Ataturk’s Lincoln ceremonial and authority cars are exhibited.
There is a relief on the inner wall of the kulan representing the opening of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 23 April 1920. In this relief, it is written on April 23, 1920, on the paper of the standing woman. In the other hand of the woman is a key symbolizing the opening of the National Assembly. The relief is the work of Atamulu.
On the walls of the tower are the very words of Atatürk about the opening of the parliament:
“There was only one decision: to establish an independent, new Turkish State based on national sovereignty, no running.” (1919)
“The only and true representative of the State of Turkey is alone and only the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.”
“Our view is that the strength, power, sovereignty, direct administration of the administration to the people, is in the hands of the people.”
The special automobile of Cadillac which Kulede Atatürk used between 1936-1938 is exhibited.
ANITKABİR ATATÜRK MUSEUM
In accordance with the terms of the Anıtkabir Project Competition, the section between the National Pact and the Revolutionary Revolution was designated as a museum. Anitkabir Ataturk Museum was opened on 21 June 1960 for this purpose. Here are the goods used by Atatürk and the gifts and clothes that are presented to him are exhibited.
Atatürk’s medals, medals and spiritual sons are also exhibited in the museum. Atatürk’s belongings are presented by A. Afet İnan, Rukiye Erkin and Sabiha Gökçen.
In this club which is the continuation of the museum, dresses worn by Ataturk are exhibited. A torch on the inner wall of the womb, which is about to disappear, holding a weak, weak hand, symbolizes the collapsing Ottoman Empire. Another torch that emits the light that a strong hand lifts towards the sky is the symbol of the new Turkish Republic and Atatürk’s reforms to bring the Turkish nation to the level of contemporary civilization. The relief is the work of Nusret Suman.
On the walls of the tower, Ataturk wrote the following words about the revolutions:
“There is no technical possibility or scientific possibility for a society to progress if it does not walk with all women and men alike.”
“We have taken our inspirations from the unknown world, not the direct world.”
In this club used as a clothing section of the museum; Former rector of Anadolu University There is wax sculpture in real dimensions of Ataturk made by Dr.Yılmaz Büyükerşen.
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY
At the entrance of the Art Gallery, there are the following very words of Atatürk about the Republic:
“Our greatest strength is our most reliable endorsement, our conception of our national sovereignty, and we have proven that we have actively handed it over to the people and that it is in the hands of the people.”
The monastery Military Statue of Atatürk, the Sivas and Erzurum Congress buildings and I. T.B.M.M. Models of the buildings and photographs of those periods are exhibited.
The special library of Ataturk is exhibited in this section which is located between Cumhuriyet Tower and Müdafaa-i Law Houses.
On the walls are foreign statesmen who visited Atatürk and oil paintings that depict Atatürk together. These paintings are the work of painter Rahmi Pehlivanli.
Galeride also has a section of the cinema where documentary films on Atatürk, National Struggle and Anıtkabir are shown.
MUDAFAA-İ HUKUK KULESİ
In the relief on the outer surface of this tower wall, Müdafaa-i Hukuk, the foundation of our national unity in our War of Independence, is mentioned. In Kabbalah, holding the sword in one hand, and extending the other hand forward, we say “Stop!” A male figure is depicted. The male tree, which protects it, represents our national tree, which is united for salvation. The relief is the work of Nusret Suman.
The words of Atatürk about Müdafaa-i Hukuk are on the walls of the kulan:
“It is in essence to dominate national power and national will.” (1919)
“From now on the nation will have its own personality, independence and all existence.” (1923)
“History can never deny the existence, the right, the existence of a nation.” (1919)
“From the heart of the Turkish nation, from the conscience and inspiration of the most fundamental, the most obvious request and faith was evident: Salvation.” (1927)
Periodical exhibitions on “Atatürk and National Struggle” are organized within the library. There is also a model of the Harbiye Mektebi that Atatürk studied.