Assos is in Ayvacık District. There is no meaning in the helsin name of Assos. The magnificent remains of the ancient city of Assos are intertwined with the village of Behram in Çanakkale Ili Ayavacık District. The name Behram comes from the name of a commander named Makhram who governed the region during the Byzantine rule. The ancient city is located on a sloping volcano overlooking the sea and is 238 m. It’s high.
B.C. Founded by the Lelegates in 2000, this old city dates back to BC It was seized by the lions from the Midilli Island in the 8th century. The famous philosopher Aristo BC In 348 the first philosophy school was founded here. BC on the hill The famous Athena temple built in the 6th century is one of the most valuable remains of the city. The walls surrounding the city are examples of antiquity preserved from the ancient world. One of the remains of the Assos today is the port, the breakwater of the small harbor and dock still in use
The city of Assos, located on the southern coast of the Troas Region, is approximately 238 m. Andesite is built on a rocky hill. In this area, andesite stone, a volcanic stone type, was used in the course of almost all structures. In the north Satnioeis (Tuzla Stream) Ida Emerging Lekto the western slope of the mountain (father nose) and Alexandria Troas (Dalyan) cities out into the sea.
Lelegian of which Homer is one of the indigenous peoples living in Anatolia in southern Troas Iliad and transfers maritime piracy because they are famous. Pedasos was destroyed by Pedasos Akhilleus during the Troia war. The Roman geographer Strabon states that the Lele have the area around Assos. However, whether or not Pedasos is Assos is open to debate. According to the archaeological evidence BC. It is 10 km from Assos from the 7th century. Aeolian immigrants from remote Lesbos (Mytilene) start to settle in the city. Starting from this century, the people of Assos started to develop 20 km east of the town of Gargara. BC It is one of the most powerful and most important cities of the Assos Troas Area, which was under the control of the king of Lydia in 560 BC. Among the major sources of income of the kingdom of Lydia are the mines found between Atarneus and Pergamon in Assos control. BC In 548, the Lydian kingdom was destroyed by the Persians, and the Anatolian lands were under Persian rule. Troas region (Dardanelles) Hellespontos Phrygia is bound to satrap. Salamis, Mykale’de Plateia and the Persians after the defeat by the Greeks, Persians, to land on the Aegean coast of Anatolia began to lose their former strength.
The Peloponnesian wars and the Troas Region did not pass the Persians. BC After the Altalkidas peace in 387, many cities were left to Persians again. Persian satrap Upon the rebellion of Ariobarzanes against the Persian king Assos BC In 365, it was besieged by Mausolos and Autophradates from other chats, but the city was not handed over. Immediately after this event, the banker declared his independence as manager of Euboulos, Atarneus and Assos. After the death of Euboulos, Euboulos’ slave “Hadım” Hermias succeeded to dominate these cities. Hermias, Bithynians is a slave and his natural ability is affected in a very profound way by the master Eubulos. So he was sent to Athens for university studies to learn from Plato and Aristotle. Hermeias Plato’s student, Aristotle invited friends Ksenokrates and Assos and Aristotle married Hermias’s adoptive sister or the Pythias. Aristotle lived and lectured in Assos for three years (347-345 BC). However, in the capital of the Persian country where İ.Ö.345 Hermias arrested in the Persian general’s call for talks was crucified. The letter written by the Persian commander, Hermias, made it possible for Assos to pass through the Persians. Due to this incident, Aristotle has to leave Assos. On the banks of the Granikos river near Biga, BC Persian domination ended with the defeat of the Persians by B. İskender in 334. And Assos has regained his freedom. After the death of Alexander, Assos first came to Assem, the Seleucid Kingdom, which was included in the lands of the kingdom of Pergamon for a long time. In 133, he was under the rule of the Roman empire upon the will of Attalos III. The Roman writer Plinius mentions that during the Roman period Assos was called Apollonia and the sarcophagus produced from local stone was very famous.
It is seen that Assos began to Christianize from the early days. St. Pauls visited the city during their travel from Aleksandreia Troas (Dalyan) to Lesbos (Lesbos Island).
In 1080, the Seljuk Sultan Suleiman captured all the Troas cities. Later during the First Crusade, soldiers under Hermit Peter passed through the area. Aleksius seized the entire Troas region (IS.1097). The Seljuks also had to retreat to the shores of the Menderes river. 1306 The Turks besieged Assos in the Byzantine commander Machron administration can not succeed. At the beginning of the 14th century, however, the entire Troas region was in the hands of the Ottoman Empire.
It was visited by many travelers during the 18th century. According to the expressions of the traveler and researchers, many buildings in the city were standing very well preserved in their time. Some blocks belonging to the Temple were built in 1838 by Sultan II. The French archaeologist Raoul-Rochette is presented by Mahut as a gift and taken to the Louvre Museum.
In 1881, the American Archaeological Institute was allowed to excavate from the Ottoman State in Assos. J. T. Clarke, F.H. Bacon continued his excavations until 1883. At the end of the excavation, 3/2 of the artifacts are given to the Ottoman State and 3/1 of them are given to the American excavation committee. After a full 100 years of excavations, Assos excavations were carried out in 1981 by Prof.Dr. Ü. Started by Serdaroğlu and continued until his death in 2005. Archaeological excavations have been carried out since 2006. On behalf of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Assoc. It is run by N. Arslan.
Among the remains of Assos are the Athena Temple in the Acropolis, the Byzantine walls, the Hüdavendigar Mosque, the antique archaic arches on the skirts of the acropolis, the tombs on both sides, the city walls, Gymnasion, Agora, Stoa, Bouleuterion, the theater and the church. A comprehensive study has not been done yet in the section where Assos houses are located. Excavations are being carried out with the financial support of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Today, Assos, bearing Behramkale-Behramköy, was the first to be ruled BC. 2000 is a residential area that continues its life uninterrupted through many changes from years to days.
It is not known exactly who the first inhabitants of Assos are. It is known that Kentin has been ruled since the Early Bronze Age.
It is also claimed that the earliest name is Pedasos and that Assos’s name comes from it. But Strabon says that Pedasos, a Lelegian city, was abandoned in his own time, no longer exists. For this reason, Assos and Pedasos are not in the same place as they are continuing their uninterrupted operation.
The Southern Troas, where the Thracian Mysians first settled, It was ruled by Aioller, who came from Lesbos in the 7th century. B.C. The most powerful and most important city in the north of the Gulf of Edremit was Assos, while the Lydians took over the city in 560 BC. After 546, during the Persian rule of Western Anatolia, the city remained within the boundaries of satrap. Thus the power of both the city and the Troas is subject to change.
B.C. The strengthening of the leadership of the city of Athens in the 5th century and the establishment of the maritime union then made it possible for the northwestern Anatolian city states and especially the coastal cities to participate in this union. Assos was among the founding members. B.C. In the battle on the edge of the River of Granikos on 334 BC, Persia of B. Alexander was defeated and the whole region emerged from Persian domination. B.C. In 241 BC, Assos entered the hegemony of Bergama. At 133, III. With the testament of Attalos, the kingdom of Pergamon passed on to Rome, this destiny shared. The real development of Assos as a city is the Roman administration period.
Assos is one of the earliest Western Anatolian cities that accept Christianity. The biggest factor in this is St. Paul and St. Paul. Lukas’s visit to the city.
In 1288, after Osman I ‘s turn in Lemnos, the Ottoman print became a definite sovereignty in 1330 and the region was constantly under the control of the Turks.
The city is located on a steep and rocky cone-shaped hill in the north and south, and on its skirts. 236 m from the sea. The rocky hill at the height is turning strong walls. 3200 m. The long ramparts are weak on the south facing the sea tomorrow. In the east it descends to the south on a rock separated by a valley and ends in the middle of the night.
There are 6 doors, one of which is the main entrance, on the western walls of the city. In the walls of Assos the courtyards are generally four corners. Most of the walls of Assos today stand in BC. It was built in the 4th century.
The most important work of Assos is Athena Temple, which was built on the highest plain of the acropolis in 530 BC. The building is very important in terms of architectural history. First, the first and only archaic age in Anatolia is an example of Dor architecture. In addition to this, the Doric architectural style is the first example that the relief frieze and decoration elements and the Ionic architectural elements have joined. In the works around the Temple of Athena in the acropolis, on both the northern and southern sides, a number of houses surrounding the stylobate and using it as a central courtyard were unearthed. These single-storey houses belonging to the 6th century BC belong to a staging area where the city is reduced and the acropolis is prepared to defend itself as an inner castle, with the cause of increasing pirate attacks.
Agora (market place, bazaar)
The agora was built on the terraces on the southern skirt of the acropolis where the gymnasium and the theater are located. In the north of Agoran there is a two storey stoa in the Dor style. Agora’s official buildings are gathered in the narrow area in the eastern part. There was a bouleterion in front of him, a bema for the speakers, some statues of other constructions and other small inscriptions. Between the agora and the large western gate there are gymnasium remains. Assos gymnasium is a work made in Hellenistic period.
Bouleuterion (parliament building) stands for the structure of the city council, which made important decisions about city life. The city council of the Assos Antique City was east of the Bouleuteiron Agora and consisted of podiums, sculptures and small monumental structures
Gymnasium is a sports building where young people receive physical and social education and is as important as a city agora. The gymnasium in Asos was built in the 2nd century BC. It is between the agora and the west gate. The four sides are shaped like a stone paved courtyard surrounded by columns in Doric style. It measures 32×40 m. The semi-circle steps in the entrance are unfortunately not reached as it is in many historical monuments. There is a church from the Byzantine period in the north-east and a cistern in the south-west
Theater: The stone road descending from the western gate of Agorans is preceded by baths and then through the theater. The theater, which has turned its face to the sea and the island of lesbos, was built on a natural rock in the south of the city center. It is a romantic theater in terms of production technique and plan features. It is a Roman theater in terms of production technique and plan features. It is most likely done in place of the old one. The cave consists of two diazomas and 26 sitting rows. On the walls of the Parados there are places with cradle vaults on both sides. These two rooms are thought to have been made for the sale of tickets and books or for officials. The non-large skene has been expanded over time. It is 19.14 m wide and has two floors. The stage structure is divided into three rooms, and the rooms are connected by gates. As it is often seen in the classical theater plan, there are three gates in the middle, wider and higher. One of the small doors is exodos, the other is eisodostur, and in the middle, the entry and exit to the sycamore are icons. The player’s platform (proskene) is 2.5 m wide and this area carries 12 semi-columns in the front. The orchestra where the choir and musicians are located is 20.5 m in diameter, and this level separates stone railing from the seating areas. Assos theater with a capacity of 5000 spectators, the earthquake has slipped and largely devastated, and many of its stones have been taken away by using it as a stone quarry in the following centuries.
The stoa, which is made for the purpose of protection from rain and sunlight, is located in the agoral settlement. The stoa are covered with columns, covered walls and a longitudinal wall consists of one or more columns and a roof covering them. In religious ceremonies, Philosophical meetings, commercial and cultural events. The philosophical Stoa School is named Stoa, meaning “the colonnaded gallery”, because it was built in a place where the walls are painted with pictures. In Asos there are stoas, one is in the north of Agora and the other is in the south. The north is believed to have been built at the end of the 3rd century BC or the beginning of the 2nd century BC. It is a two-storey, Doric style. The lower floor is decorated with rectangular panels between columns. On the second floor wall, there are holes where the wooden logs forming the ceiling are located. The southern stoa from Ayni period was three storeys and 13 storeys in the middle storey. On the lower floor was a cistern and 13 hammams.