It is a historical ildir who is host to Diyarbakir, one of the oldest cities in the world, located in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. There are 17 counties along with the central district. It is the most populous metropolis in the east of the country.
It lies to the north of Elcezire (Mesopotamia) in the middle part of the Southeastern Anatolia Region. Siirt and Mus in the east; Şanlıurfa, Adıyaman, Malatya in the west; Elazığ and Bingöl in the north; And Mardin in the south. The surface of the earth is generally surrounded by mountains in the middle, a slightly hollowed outlook and surrounded by the arms of the Southeast Taurus. The highest mountain is Anduk Mountain (2830m) near the border of Mus.
It is dominated by a hard, dry climate. The summers are very hot and arid, and the winters are cold and rainy. Temperatures in winter are rarely -20 degrees. Since the Southeastern Taurus cuts off the cold winds coming from the north, the winters are colder than Eastern Anatolia. The annual precipitation is 496 millimeters. The temperature is between +46.2 ° C and -24.2 ° C.
33% of the Diyarbakir soil is covered with forest and shrubbery, 40% with cultivated land and 22% with grassland and meralar. Everywhere in the spring, it's green. In the summer months, everywhere except the edges of the creek is steppe, and the herbs are completely dried up. Willows, plane trees, walnut and poplar trees in the valleys, oak, juniper and wild fruit trees in the highlands. Although the forest area is 33% visible, the regular forest area is very small.
According to Turkstat data, the population of the province is 1.528.958 as of 2010, along with all the villages and districts  and is one of the largest provinces of eastern and southeastern Anatolia with its population. The average population of people in Kilometers per square meter is 88 while in Diyarbakir this number is 95. [Source must be indicated] In the period of 1990-2000, the annual population growth rate is 21.73 per person and it is above the average of 18.3 in Turkey. The population of Diyarbakir city center is 834,854.
Diyarbakır, which is famous for its watermelon, serves as main dish; liver kebab, içli köfte, çiğ köfte, bulgur pilaf, rib, keşkek, lebeni; And from the desserts it is also rich in burma, kadayıf and nuriye and food culture.
State Theater and Metropolitan Municipal Theater are located in the city center of Diyarbakir.
Diyarbakir (Archeology) Museum, Ziya Gökalp Museum House, Gazi Mausoleum museum house, Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Museum House are today the active museums of Diyarbakir. A museum will soon be opened in the name of Diyarbakirli El Cezeri, the father of robotic science . [Source must be specified] Museum Dicle University will take place in Dicle Teknokent.
Diyarbakir Museum: The first museum in Diyarbakir was opened in 1934 in the Senceriye (Chain) Medres, the continuation of the Grand Mosque. In 1985 it was moved to the new building on Elazığ Avenue. The works belonging to the periods of Old Bronze, Urartu, Assyrian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, Akkoyunlu and Ottoman periods are exhibited chronologically from the Neolithic Period. Numerous coins from the Artukid period and local, ethnographic artifacts are exhibited in the museum.
Ziya Gökalp Museum House: Ziya Gökalp's native house is turned into a museum and personal items are exhibited.
Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı Museum House: The house where Cahit Sıtkı Tarancı, one of the famous poets of the Republican period, was born became a museum in 1973. At the same time, the famous poet's personal belongings are exhibited in the museum which has all the features of Diyarbakır architecture.
Diyarbakir Castle: The length of the walls is 5,5 km, the height is 10-12 meters, the thickness is 3-5 meters. It is the largest wall after the Great Wall of China. It was built on a wide plain about 100 meters high from the Dicle valley. Outside there are 82 sharks. There is a wide path between the bushes, these walls are 70 centimeters thick. The bushes are mostly round, but there are also four and six angles.
Malabadi Bridge: This bridge is a historical bridge from the time of Akkoyunlular. Silvan is located in the province.
Dicle Bridge: The bridge was built by Nizamüddevle Nasr, the ruler of Diyarbakır, in 1065, during the time of the Mervans.
Haburman Bridge: It is learned that it was built in 1179 by Zübeyde Hatun from Köprünün's five-line book. Zübeyde Hatun Artuklu is daughter of Necmüddin Albi (1152-1176) and built this bridge with her own money.
Diyarbakır Grand Mosque: Diyarbakır Grand Mosque, the mosque on the west side of the axis connecting the Harput Gate and the Mardin Gate on the walls of Diyarbakır Castle. The Diyarbakır Grand Mosque is considered to be the 5th Harem-i Sharif of Islam.
Behram Pasha Mosque: Built between 1564-72 by Behram Pasha. Mimar Sinan period is among the buildings. Mukarnasları is quite skillful. The Chinese who are in the Mihrapt are remarkable.
Sheikh Mutahhar (Four-Footed Minaret) Mosque: It is also called the November sultan in the fishermen's neighborhood. Mosque Sheikh Mutahhar received this name because it was built on a plot of land. It is written in the book of Minaresin that the mosque was built at the time of the Akkoyunlu Sultan Kasım Bey in 1500. It is the only example in the Anatolian mosques with its four square columns and the square architecture sitting on the headings.
Safa Mosque: It was built by Uzun Hasan in the 15th century, Akkoyunlular period and it is the architectural masterpieces of the period. Especially the stone workmanship of the minarets is remarkable. It is known that the minaret's sheath was removed only in the Friday hut until recently, as the mineral sparrow was mixed with the fragrant plants growing around Diyarbakir.
Kale Mosque (Hz. Süleyman-Nazıriye Mosque): Hz. Süleyman Mosque was built by Nisanoğlu Ebul Kasım between 1155-1169. Süleyman the son of Khalid bin Walid, who was built during the Ottoman period, and Mashhad, the other sahabel martyr who died during the capture of Diyarbakir by Arabs. During the conquest of Diyarbakir, 27 companions, including Suleiman the son of Khalid bin Walid, died in this area and 13 companions were martyred in different parts of the walls. The injured Sultan Sasa was martyred after 6 months and a total of 41 sahaba were buried in the region. In Diyarbakir, the tombs of 27 of the 30 sahaben known as the exact locations of the tombs of this camîdir. The graves of the martyrs of 27 are under the influx of visitors from all over Turkey.
Meryem Main Syriac Kadim Church: A church belonging to the Orthodox Syriacs. The structure, which is estimated to have been built in the 3rd century, has been burnt down, demolished, renovated several times, repaired repeatedly. Patriarch 2. Jacob, who came from Deyr-ül Zafaran in Mardin, lived here until his death in 1871 and served as the Patriarchate Center at that time.
Saint Georgi Church: Saint Georges Church, also known as Kırkdamaltı Church, is the highest church in Diyarbakır Belisırma District in the 3rd century and was built by Amirarzes Basileios and his wife Tamara. It was decorated between 1283-1295. In the frescoes found in the church, which is a coarse-grained basilical plan, all the subjects the bible tells and the Seljuk Sultan II. Masud's picture has been portrayed. The part of the rock that formed the entrance section was destroyed as a result.
Mar Petyun Church: It is in Yeni Street, Ozdemir District. The church, which was not known exactly when it was built and dated to the 17th century, is still being used by the Chaldeans of the Catholic sect.
Khans and Caravanserai
Among the important buildings of Diyarbakir, inns have an important place. At the beginning of these are Deliller Han, Hasan Pasha Han, Çifte Han and Yeni Han.
Diyarbakir, İpek on the road because of the specific routes were built inns and caravanserais. This order that Anatolian Seljuks applied also continued in the Ottomans.
Hüsrev Paşa Han was built by the same person in 1527. The cause of the people called the Deliller Inn is that every year the proofs that will lead the pilgrim candidates gathered in this handicap to go to Islamic countries every year remain here. The building is two storeys. It has been restored and opened as a modern hotel with 120 beds.
It is opposite the Grand Mosque. It was built by the Ottoman governors Vezirzade Hasan Pasha in 1572-1573. [Citation needed] Today, cafes, restaurants, bookshops and antiquities are home to.