It is located in the Eastern Black Sea Region of the Black Sea Region of the Republic of Turkey and is located on the coast of the Black Sea. The province is the northeastern corner of Turkey on the border with Georgia. Ardahan province to the east, Erzurum province to the south and Rize province to the west. It is composed of 8 cities including the central city. According to the 2009 census, the province is the 75th most populous province with 165,580 people.
Geographically and culturally, it is separated from other regions of Anatolia by sharp lines. Surface shapes are very rugged. Climate diversity is excessive. The most important stream of the province is Çoruh River which gave its name until 1956. Artvin is a city famous for its bulls and its symbol is strangled. Approximately 55% of Artvin province's territory is covered with forest areas. Murgul has a copper mine. In history, it is generally known as Livane and Coruh. The province of Artvin constitutes Georgian, Kipchak Turks and Lazlar.
Famous with national parks. Şavşat-Karagöl and Borçka-Karagöl located in Karagöl Sahara National Park located in Şavşat province are worth seeing. Camili region is considered to be the only region in Turkey and a world heritage site determined by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as the biosphere reserve area, based on the Efeler-Gorgit Nature Protection Area.
Ancient ages: Archaeological studies in the planned and scientific manner have not been carried out due to the disadvantages of soil structure and distance from science centers. In the years 1933 and 1955, the copper axes found by the people in Yusufeli and Şavşat provinces were discovered in BC. It is thought to date from 3000-4000 years. Bronze axes in the same region BC. It is known that they belong to 3000-2000 years.
Artvin and its environs began with the pre-historic periods of the Polished Stone Age and lived in the order of the copper, bronze and iron ages. B.C. Human tracks belonging to the Polished Stone Age dating from 10 thousand to 8 thousand years also give the impression that people lived in Artvin during these times. The mineral products found document that prehistoric times lived with order.
First states: The first tribe to dominate Artvin is the Hurires. B.C. Starting in 2000, the Hurriers established site states around Artvin. Hittites BC From 1360 he had captured Artvin with his expeditions for 20 years. The Urartians extend the northern borders to Artvin. However, they did not stand up to the pressure of the Scythians, who came with great immigration from the east, and they were destroyed. This time Artvin was located on the western border of the Caucasus-based Scythian state. The Scythians have occupied Artvin and have begun to use this area as a military base.
After the Scythians, the dynasty called Arsaklar dominated Artvin. This dynasty believed in Shamanist religious teaching is M.S. By the Byzantine influence in the year 350, they accepted the religion of Jesus. Then they were under the domination of Byzantium. In 575, the Caspian Turks ruled the Coruh area. Hz. In the Ottoman period, his commander, the commander of the Islamic armies, defeated Byzantine his son Habib and captured Şavşat, Ardanuç, and Artvin. During the Umayyad period, the people of Artvin, who joined the Khazars, resisted the Islamic armies. In 786, the Abbasi Caliphate attached Aaron Rashid Coruh territory to the capital, Baghdad. In 853-1023, the two principalities of Abbasids were founded in Artvin, the Bagratlar and Sac. Artvin went back to Byzantium's hand when the Sacrifice was demolished.
Alparslan went to Georgia in 1064 and captured the Coruh collar. After the death of Alparslan, the Georgian King Gorgi Artvin, who had helped by Byzantium, recaptured. However, in 1081, defeating Meliksah, with the support of Meliksah, Erzurum - Bayburt - Kars centered Saltuklu Principality, which included Çoruh, was established. The spread of the Turkish population to Artvin accelerated. After the collapse of the Great Seljuk State, Artvin was tied to Atabeyli, the son of Ildeniz, based in Azerbaijan. In 1263 Kubilay captured Artvin and added this region to Ilkhani lands. Sark, who was a Kipchak Turk in 1265, established the Çıldır Atabeyliğini in this region.
Ottoman period: There is no definite information or document about when Artvin province went to Ottoman rule. II. It is known that Mehmed destroyed the Greek Empire of Trabzon and seized the seashore of the Black Sea region from the coastal part of Artvin province. At the same time Artvin, Yusufeli, Ardanuç, Borçka, was in the hands of the Caddesi Çıldır.
Selim I Trabzon took Valencia while he was in Georgia and took the Southern Kalesi on the south-west of Batumi. Selim I, who established the banner with the name of this castle, attributed to Borçka, Hopa and Artvin. In 1534, Erzurum Beyylerbeyi Mehmed Han fired around Yusufeli. Ardanuç Atabeyi II. Keykavus uprising, the son of Selim I. Seljuk's sultan I.Süleyman second veteran Kara Ahmet Pashayı suppressed the revolt. The second campaign of Kara Ahmet Pashan was the first Livane Sanjak named Pert-Eğekte. Between 1549-51 Ardanuç region between Şavşat and Yusufeli is about two years. Keykavus was in his possession. On 13 June 1551, Erzurum Beylerbeyi İskender Pasha, who conquered Ardanuç Kalesi, also added this region to the Ottoman Empire.
Artvin and its surroundings remained under Ottoman rule for about 250 years. The Ottoman-Russian war of 1828 and the conclusion of the war ended with the signing of the Edirne Agreement. The Ottoman lost some of the province of Çıldır under the agreement. On the other hand Artvin, Borchka, Ardanuç, Savsat and Yusufeli Ottoman were in possession.
With the plan of the Russians to descend to the south and create a world empire, the Ottoman-Russian war of 1877-78 (93 Wolves) came out. On April 24, after Russian occupation of Kars, Ardahan and Batum, it started to move towards Turkish territory. On May 2, 1877 more than 800 military martyrs were killed. The people of Artvin against the Russians who took the Ardahan periphery started to migrate eastward to Ardanuç and Savsat.
Due to Süleyman Paşa, who had erroneous lines at Şıpağa crossing, the Russians pierced these lines and traveled to Eastern Anatolia. Ottoman had to make peace offer. On March 3, 1878, the Ayestefanos peace settlement of 29 items between the Ottomans and Russia was signed. The Ottoman, Kars, Ardahan, and Batum regions, which did not pay the 245.207.301 gold compensation in article 19, had to give compensation to Russia for compensation. This peace was contrary to the interests of the European states On December 23, 1978 Berlin Peace was signed. With this peace, Elvire-i Selase, Kars, Ardahan, and Batumi passed through Russia. With the Great Muhaide agreement signed between the Ottomans and Russia on February 8, 1879, the Turks living in Kars, Ardahan, and Batum began to migrate to the west.