Trabzon is a central city in the Eastern Black Sea region of the Black Sea Region.
It is located between the Black Sea coast and the Zigana Mountains and covers a small area in terms of surface area. Eynesil district of Giresun at its base, Torul district and Bayburt of Gumushane in the south, Ikizdere and Tetovo districts of Rize in the east, It is the name of the provincial and provincial center which has been known since the time of the Ages. The total population of the city was 765.127 according to the results of the Adrese based population registration system (ADNKS) in 2009. The population of 30.000 in 1935 has increased from 361.886 in 1990 to 975.137 in 2000. In 2007, it decreased to 740,569.
Behind a narrow coastline lies the province center of Boztepe (ancient Minthrion hill), which has a mountainous land extending perpendicular to the sea. 22.4% of the provincial lands are composed of highlands and 77.6% of them are composed of hills.
Dereler: Değirmendere (Piksidis), Yanbolu, Fol, Agasar, İskefiye, Kalenima, Karadere (Araklı), Küçükdere, Koha, Sürmene (Manahos), Solaklı, Baltacı, Greenhouse Creek ...
The map from 1838 shows the period just before Milat. On the map there are Proto-Laz tribes from the east of Trabzon to Abkhazia: Colchis or Lazica, Makrons, Sanni, Moshiler.
Antique Age: According to Eusebius, the date of the city's foundation date to 756 BC makes this claim to be an older city than Sinop, which made Trabzon Istanbul, Rome and even Trabzon and other Eastern Black Sea colonies. If this is the case, the Sinopians must have colonized the existing city after 630 BC.
The phrase "this city on the Pontos Euksenios" in Anabasis is the colony of Sinope in the country of Kolhis, the ancestors of the Lazs, was later confirmed by Arrian and Peripleus.
At the center of the Greeks were the ancestors of the Lazs (Tzans) of the present day, the Colchis and the Trabzon they lived in, an export port where they were sold to commercial centers and foreign countries where commercial goods produced around Armenia and Euphrates were exchanged through the Zigana passage through Antiquity and afterwards. Following the loss of a series of wars that the Pontic Emperor Mithridates interfered with the Roman Empire
, he became Roman dominated in Trabzon
, besides the Anatolian lands.
Rome and Byzantium:
Trabzon, which did not support Mithridates in the struggle against Pompey, was granted a free city status in the Roman period. Arrian himself, who came to town, said that Trapezus was the most important port city in the southern Black Sea during the Roman period. The city, which was restored during the Roman Emperor Hadrian period, was the capital of Pontus Cappadocia province during Trajan and a new port was built. It was looted by the Goths, a Germanic tribe during the Gallian period, and was restored once in the Justinian era, earning its former position. Upon the occupation of Istanbul by the Latins, the Komnenos family would take refuge in Trabzon and establish an independent kingdom (Trabzon Empire) which will continue until the Ottoman conquest in 1461, declaring themselves Roman Emperors.
From the Komnenos dynasty VII. Michael came to Trabzon due to Latin occupation and declared himself Roman Emperor with support of Tamar, the Georgian queen Tamar, but the West especially scorned the Vatican Trabzon Emperor as "Laz ruler". Although the Trabzon emperors originally used a double-headed (aetos) figurine like the other Byzantine (East Roman) emperors as symbols, they had a relief on the entrance door of the Trabzon Hagia Sophia museum today in order to prevent a conflict by the end of the Latin occupation and the re- They preferred the single-headed eagle symbol. Eight years after the conquest of Istanbul (1461) by Fatih Sultan Mehmet the various principals in the Black Sea, the Italians, the Ottomans and the Turkmen (belonging to the Akkoyunlu tribal federation) and the Ceneviziler and the Venetians, the Mongols and the Ottomans, Colonies and the Crimea, and the strategic control of the Silk road was made to enter the Ottoman domination.
After Bayezid I took Samsun region in 1398, Trabzon Komnenos Kingdom was obliged to pay annual tax to the Ottoman State. David Komnenos, in the period of power (1458-1461) stopped paying taxes, the former Akkoyunlu State Sultan Suleiman Uzun Hasan to ask for the return of the Ottoman Empire against the major European countries have proposed an alliance. On top of this, the Ottoman Forces under the leadership of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror surrounded the region, seized Trabzon in 1461 and put an end to the dominance of the Komnenos.
In the Ottoman period, Trabzon was first administered by the prince and the municipalities as province and sanjak. The first star-studded is Hızır Bey. In 1470, the starlet was given to Şehzade Abdullah at a young age; Abdullah lived in Trabzon until 1479 with his mother Şirin Hatun. Yavuz Sultan Selim was also found as the Sancak Beyi in Trabzon (1491-1512) during the şehtühendi (son of Sultan Süleyman) who was later to receive the title of Kanuni.
In the 16th century, Trabzon was transformed into a state converted to the center of this new administrative unit by merging it with the Battalion of Lazistan Sanjak.
The continuing Caucasian-Russian war between the years 1859 and 1864 in the North Caucasus resulted in the defeat of the Circassian and Abaza peoples and led to the accumulation of immigrants over 360 counties. Naturally, a major catastrophe has resulted in migration, epidemics, hunger, and introspection. In a very short time the ports of Trabzon and Akçakale and the surrounding settlements have almost turned into reservations. During this period, the local people who escaped from the epidemic suffered a flood and there remained only the immigrants in the city and those who could not escape other than the state officials.
A great fire broke out in Trabzon in 1867, many public buildings were burnt down and the city was later reorganized. In 1868, it became a province and besides the central sanjak, Lazistan, Gümüşhane, Canik Sancaks were also connected here.
During World War I, Russians attack Trabzon (14 April 1916). Striking forces of the Trabzon (Milis) give guerilla warfare during this attack. Trabzonlu ammunition arriving at the Port of Trabzon in support of Hamidiye Armored to be sent to the fronts is evacuated in great excitement and transported to Maçka.
Successful battles against Russians were made in Sultan Murat Yaylasında (June 10, 1916) in Çaykara, Of'ta Baltacı and Yanbolu in Arsin. However, under the conditions of those years, the enemy can not be prevented from entering Trabzon and the Russians enter Trabzon on April 14, . Within a year, ten months, ten days, during which the Russians have been in Trabzon, Greeks and Armenians in particular made great tributes to the local people; Countless people kill.
In 1917 the "Bolshevik Revolution" took place in Russia, and the Tsarist Administration was demolished. Then they start a great panic in the Russian army. This leads to the withdrawal of the Russians from Trabzon. On the other hand, the Turkish Gangs, moving from the west to the east and collected in Montenegro, descend into Akçaabat and walk towards Trabzon on the command of Captain Kahraman Bey and enter Trabzon on 24 February 1918.
Republic of Turkey:
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and his friends founded the Turkish Republic, the new Turkish state, and in the new administrative structure of the new country in Trabzon, sixty-one (61) nations took their place.
The borders of the Republic of Turkey during the Republic period were drawn on the basis of distances to the administrative structures and centers rather than cultural and historical ideas.
Trabzon, which is one of 81 provinces of the Republic of Turkey, is located in the Eastern Black Sea region and constitutes 0,6% of the country's land area with an area of 4.685 km2.
After the declaration of the Republic, various factories were established in Trabzon.
Ataturk comes to Trabzon three times during the Republican period; In 1924, 1930 and 1937, the first day they arrived on September 15, 1924, they were regarded as "ATATURK DAY" in Trabzon and this is reported to him.
Community and Culture: The people of Trabzon carry self and local characteristics in terms of number, lifestyle, tradition and customs. There are many Turkmen trenches living in Trabzon. The Çepniler live in 29 villages in the villages of Shalpazari and Beşikdüzü districts close to Shalpazar and still carry on their oldest Turkmen traditions. They were placed in Trabzon by the Karamanoğulları in the time of Fatih. Karamanoğulları Turkmen (Oghuz's) Avshar boycuz.
Traveling Evliya Çelebi; When Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han Gazi (land is fragrant and the place is paradise), when his fortress conquered this callee, he drove various people from the four sides of the province to Trabzon and settled it down and settled it in Trabzon. Community. " .
When talking about the physical characteristics of the people of Trabzon, they are eager to enjoy the pleasure and fun of traveling and enjoying the whole people from the sweetness of the water and air because they are located in the fifth climate .. The colors of the faces are reddish as they are elegant and indifferent elegant friends and lovers. Because Circassian beauties, there are beautiful boys and girls so that each one is a moon piece and a sun peg. " He describes.
Language: The people of Trabzon were forced to leave Pontus and Lazcay, the mother tongue after Islam in the 16th century, and to get used to the Turkic language. They spoke in keeping with their Greek pronunciation because they could not remove the letters like -b-, -d-, -g-, The word "b" and "ı" in fish words are not in Greek, and because of the fact that the Trabzonans, who have newly accepted Islam, can not speak the Turkish language, they pronounce this word palpably in Pontus Yunan. However, in Trabzon, more than four centuries of continuous English is spoken. Some of the local people are archaic archaic languages.
Trabzon mouth, which contains a large number of borrowed words from Greek, Georgian, Russian, Armenian and Persian languages, contains deep differences in Anatolian Turkish, especially with unusual consonant changes.  The local dialect of Rumcan's archaic language in Köprübaşı, Çaykara, Maçka, Tonya, Of, Dernekpazari settlements continues to be spoken by Muslims in 5,000 to 80,000 people in 50 villages today.
Whether you are a peasant or a city, the Trabzon woman (like Laz, who lives on the coast of Rize and Artvin) definitely does not wear purses. The only exception is in the Shalpa district, where Chepni women are wearing baggy trousers and wearing red or pink tusks with tassels.
Music and folk games:
The traditional instruments of the Trabzon region are boxwood kaval, kemençe, drum-zurna and zimpona in the region, also known as dankiyo. If the name of the traditional dances played by women and men in a number of different types of horondur.kolbastı game in 1930 in the Faroz district of Trabzon began. It's a game where the farrier fishers play among themselves.
Theater events in Trabzon are carried out by Trabzon Municipal Theater and Trabzon State Theater. Amateur theater, music and folk dances are performed in public education centers. In addition to the State Classical Turkish Music Society, which works in the field of music, cartoon and painting works are exhibited in the Municipal
In the last period of the Ottoman Empire, there were eight madrasas, five primary schools with four years of education, one artistic dormitory, one military ordinal, one idiadi and one Darulmuallim as educational institutions in Trabzon. There are 815 primary schools, 86 high schools and balanced schools in Trabzon, and Karadeniz Technical University opened on December 2, 1963.
Historical-Touristic Places: The city became a center of the province during the Roman Empire and Ottoman period, and the city which has been a capital of the Greek empire during the Middle Ages, has many natural history as well as many historical sites.
The most important of them are:
Sümela Monastery, Hagia Sophia Museum, Kaymaklı Monastery (Amenapırgiç Armenian Church), Girls (Panagia Theoskepastos) Monastery, Gregorios Peristera Monastery, Girls (Panagia Kerameste) Monastery, Vaselon Monastery, Hagaios Savas Rock Churches, Kiliseler And Cameras: Hagia Anna (Little Ayvasil), Sotha (St. John) K, Hagios Theodoros, Hagios Konstantinos, Hagios Khristophoras, Hagios Kiryaki, Santa Maria, Hagios Mikhail, Panagia Tzita, Fatih (Panagia Khrysokephalos) ), Nakip (Hagios Andreas Church), Hüsnü Köktuğ (Hagios Eleutherios), İskender Pasha Mosque, Semerciler, Çarşı Mosque, Gülbahar Hatun Mosque, Governor of Trabzon and Valievi.
Konaklar: Memiş Ağa Mansion (Sürmene), Çakıroğlu İsmail Ağa Mansion (Of), Çakıroğlu Hasan Ağa Mansion, Karamollaoğlu Topal Mustafa Evi (Araklı)
There are many historical buildings in Konakönü district of Araklı district. These structures bear witness to the Russian occupation in many ancient times with witnessing.
Eight Direkli Hamam, Fatih Hamami, İskender Paşa Hamami, Double Hamam, Hacı Arif Hamami, Alaca Hamam, Tophane Hamami
Ottoman Period Other Works: Cold Fountain, Bedesten, Sufi Ali Bey Book, Sur Book, Kabak Square Fountain, Ortahisar Muvakkithanesi, Çarşı Mosque Muvakkithanesi, Military Hospital, Seyyidi Haci Mehmed Fountain, Iskender Pasha Fountain, Kethüdazade Hacı Emin Ağa Fountain, Abdullah Pasha Fountain, Hafiz Muhammed Fountain, Abdulhamid Port Fountain