Troy, located near the village of Tevfikiye in the province of Çanakkale and now called “Hisarlık” It took its place in the scientific realm as an important settlement center subject to the famous Iyada and Odysseia epics of the 9th century. Trojan excavations in this context are also considered to be one of the leading figures in the archaeological work. Located on one of the major trade routes between Europe and Asia, Troy was excavated by H. Schliemann in 1871, followed by excavations by W. Dörpfeld and C. Blegen. M. Korfmann has been continuing his excavations and restoration work since 1938.
In order to find the treasures of King Priamos of Troia, in the center of Hisarlik Höyük, today the name “Schliemann Spin” Width and 17 m. H. Schliemann, who opened a deep slice, descended to the main rock; But it has led to the destruction of many layers during this work. In 1882 they collaborated with W. Dörpfeld and his team to make important discoveries. Dörpfeld, nine archaeologists who followed the stratum of civilization, divided nine of Dörpfeld into more than thirty layers of insurrection. Thus, one of the most important centers considered as a legend before H. Schliemann was uncovered, an epic built with various historical events turned into reality and was introduced to the world of science as one of the oldest civilizations of Anatolia. Troy was declared an “Historical National Park” in 1996 and was included in the Unesco World Heritage List in 1998.
Nine Historical Layers
It is possible to study Troy in nine layers, which has been destroyed by natural disasters and wars nine times throughout history. The first layer, Troy I, BC It covers 3000-2500 years. This first settlement, consisting of ten layers on top of the Early Bronze Age, is 90 m. It occupies a rather small area around. The walls of Troy I are well preserved. The main entrance to the south supported two towers. House 102 in the north is considered to be the most important find of this layer. 7, 00×18, 75 m. The house in the measurement, the front chamber and the large chamber are in the style of “megaron” (wooden roof structure with hearth inside with rectangular / square interior); This is the first known example of this type which led to the temples of Ancient Greece. Schematic figurines from marble or limestone; In the technique of scraping the dark colored burnished caskels, simple geometric motifs and pots with bezels and three-legged basins were found. It turns out that Trojan I ended with a big fire.
BC The second layer dates from 2500-2200 and the Troy II consists of 7 building levels. Although it covers an area of ??110 m, it is of great importance in the history of Troy. New fortification walls were built in the three main periods. The monumental entrance was arranged as an architectural façade of large-scale megerons, and the settlement became a representative of an important step in terms of urban planning. However, it can be said that the Trojan I cultures are maintained. The understanding of the city’s planning was maintained in ancient Greek cities such as Tiryns and Athens of later periods. In addition to copper and bronze tools and vessels, much gold and silver are found. Trojan II collapsed as a result of an invasion.
In the layers of Troy III-V, it is suggested that the earlier bright age of Troy began to disappear. Truva III (2200-2050 BC), which seems to have not changed much in terms of lifestyle, is composed of 4 buildings. The remains of this period are mirrored on the north-western side of the ramp south of Troy II and are usually shaped by adjacent small houses and narrow streets made of rubble stones. Sur walls are also completely overturned. There are no significant innovations in small finds. Only the vessel forms have changed; Bell-shaped casks, mugs, beak-mouthed testers have emerged. It is believed that few wheel-made vessels are manufactured for the rich. Five construction phases are seen in Troy IV (2050-1900 BC), which shows five construction phases and constitutes the last settlement of the Early Bronze Age. It is understood that the walls are not even found. Ordinary constructions at adjacent levels are located to the east of VIA in the west. For the first time, domed ovens were uncovered in the courtyards of houses made of clay on a stone clay base. In the Truva V (1900-1800 BC), which constituted the transition from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Bronze Age, six construction phases were identified. It has been understood that the settlement was converted into a simple fortification. While the architectural features of the houses largely reiterate the Trojan IV, it is understood that the walls are made of more elaborate workmanship, smoother and larger sized spaces. In addition, there has been an increase in interior items, such as domed stoves and beehive-shaped ovens, shapes. All these characteristics show that there is a development in the lifestyle.
Golden Age of the City
Troy VI (1800-1275 BC) consists of eight building levels and three main periods. The houses and the ramparts built in this phase are a skilled workmanship and delightful products. Today, the standing walls are composed of six sections connected by five doors. The best preserved is Division 1 in the north east. This section is 18 m. And 8 m. Width. It is 9 m. At the height of the Kulenin, the Acropolis, as well as the entire Plateau, was observed to be a Watch Tower. It is 8 m. There is a cistern surrounding the deep well. In the south, 41, 50 m. In its length, 4, 50 m. And at 4, 00 m. Part of the height could have arrived at daylight, Part 2 attracts attention with its quality workmanship. This wall remained largely behind the Roman period wall. It extends about 90 m to the south. Part 3 was partially destroyed by the Roman period Bouleterion in the south and the Schliemann’s half. On the other hand, the eastern part is quite well. Part 4 in the south, 121 m. Length. One of the most important finds in Troy VI, Part 4 is about 450 m. Vast Protecting the original situation Chapter 5 is built with small stones and differs in terms of its technical characteristics. It is also half the thickness of the other sections. Chapter 6 in the north is only open to the bottom; Was destroyed during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Troy VI palaces and other important structures are on the top of the hill. Constructions in the acropolis were destroyed during the Hellenistic period, when stoas were built with the Athena Temple and expanded during the Roman period. The undamaged parts were also destroyed by Schliemann. However, the structures revealed in the excavations are of interest. Troy VI has been regarded as one of the most beautiful and extraordinary cities among the contemporaries of the whole antique world, with its delicate workmanship walls, masterful city planning and constructions. This period is a time period in which the Trojans realized a high level of cultural life. Troy VI, the golden age of the city, was destroyed by a major earthquake.
The excavated finds related to the settlement of Troy VIIa (1275-1240 BC) show that there is no interruption in Troy’s cultural life. As a matter of fact, it is stated that the Gray Minyan pottery found in Troy VI is in the same quality and abundance in VIIa. In fact, the Tan pottery is also the density seen in the previous layer. However, the walls of untreated stones belonging to Troy VI were also encountered. According to the American excavation team, VIIa is the city of Priamus, and Ilion, which is described in Homer’s “Iliad”, belongs to this turn. However, E. Akurgal states that it is unlikely to be able to participate in this view within the framework of architectural evidence of this layer, that the residents of the VIIa reside in the walls of the city walls and ruined houses, but the houses they built are of lower quality. In fact, it adds that the city is changing in terms of architectural planning and arrangement, the high artistic criteria we see in Trojan VIf-h, and the urban planning designed to elaborate in detail, are not seen in Troy VIa. Especially the houses located in the section between the eastern and southeastern gates of Troy VI are irregular and incomplete houses without the “megaron” type showing the existence of different social strata. He could not compare it to the houses on the floor. The short-lived Troy VIIa was destroyed by Akals.
In the period of Troy VIIb1 (1240-1190 BC), it is understood from the remnants of the ruins of the Akers that they returned to the cities of the Trojans, their houses and walls of the city. They continued to produce the gray Minyan and Tan pottery, which resulted in the previous brilliant cultural life not being interrupted. Remains of this period are seen to the south of the city.
During Trojan VIIb2 (1190-1100 BC), for the first time since Trojan VI, cultural change is witnessed. In this period, “pottery with buttons” and similar pottery began to be seen. Until this turn, these potteries, which are only confronted in the Balkans, are distinguished by their greyish color, horn-like protrusions on their surface and angular stalks. Significant changes also occurred in construction techniques; The lower rows of walls are supported by orthostats (large size, decorated stone). From these accounts, it is understood that a people of Balkan origin lives in Trojan VIIb2. It is understood that the Acropolis, which had been used for centuries as an inner fortress protected against invasions, lost its former significance at this stage.
Traces of Hellenistic Civilization
Traces of Hellenistic civilization seen in Troy VIII It does not go back to the 7th century. The first Hellenistic structure, named “Upper Temenos” in the excavation committee, is located on the southwest side of the city. This wall belongs to the Hellenistic Revolution together with the altar stone in the middle. The covered northeastern wall of Temenos in front of the walls of Troy VI is a fine example of the stony workmanship of the Hellenistic period, with elaborate rustic surfaces (rough rough stone blocks). The second altar in the middle of the altar stone belongs to the time of the Romans, not to this turning. In the south of Upper Temenos, there are two altar rocks of the Hellenistic Period, called the “Lower Temenos”. The most important structure built in the city during the Hellenistic period is the Temple of Athena in the northern part of the city. Homer also refers to this structure. The building, which was built during the time of Alexander the Great, was built by its commanders during the Lysimakhos period (323-281 BC). The Doric order of the Doric order is only a pit of digging and the fragments in it. Parts of the temple belong to the Trojan Museum.
The finds in Troy IX belong to the Roman period. Because the Romans believed that they were the ancestors of Aphrodite’s son and Trojan War hero Aeneas, they gave great importance to “Ilion” (Troy). The Roman Emperor Iulius Caesar (100-44 BC) made an offering here; But Emperor Augustus (63 BC-14 AD), who had a vague plan for concrete plans. During this period, the temenos of Athena Temple was expanded and many new structures were built. The temple is four sides, each 80 m. It is surrounded by pillars of height. The most important structures of Troy VI and the houses of Troy VII were destroyed when construction activities were carried out in this area. The Roman Wall in front of the southwest part of Troy VI and closed it was also built during this period. The Monumental Entrance to the south of the temple belongs to this stage. Many Roman buildings were built in the area between the city walls of the Athena Temple and the city walls. Bouleterion (Parliament Building / Theater B) built on the east side of the main entrance of Troy VI in the south and part of the seatings on the walls of the city is also belonging to the Roman period in Theater C which was built on the city walls.