Although the exact date is unknown, it is believed that the county is a rather old settlement and probably dates back to 3000 BC. Derinkuyu’s former name is Malachy, Melegobia or Melegobia. The first inhabitants of the province extend to the Assyrian period.
The arrival of the Turks to the region is based on the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071. The Turks who settled in the region settled in the areas of Çekme, Kızılören, Şemşili and Bölören plains in the east of the county and lived with livestock.
Derinkuyu, which is famous for its underground city, is said by the people of the region that there is no housing on earth until the 1830s. The city has taken the name of Derinkuyu because of its need for drinking water 60 – 70 meters deep from the wells.
Come to Derinkuyu’s invisible face, underground city. Derinkuyu Underground City, which is the biggest underground city in the region, is also very important for tourism.
The largest of the 36 underground cities in Cappadocia is Derinkuyu Underground City. The city, which has been open for tourism since 1967, has 8 floors and the oldest intellectual hospital in the world is also here. The most important reason why the underground cities in the region are widespread is undoubtedly security.
The cities that are formed by the carving, excavation and carving of the easily shaped tuff site of the region are entered through a narrow entrance which is not obvious when viewed from the outside. The floors of the city are connected to each other by inclined or stepped corridors. One of the most striking features of the city is stone masses, which are called tigris, which are like huge stone wheels and used for the protection of underground cities, which are placed behind the doors and which close the doors when necessary. At the time of the danger, the doors were closed with stone wheels and the danger from the outside was easily prevented.
In Derinkuyu Underground City you can see residential areas, defense, ventilation, production areas inside. The size of the city is not exactly known, but today it can be seen 8 times in a 2,500 square meter area. (It is thought to be 12 or 13 floors but you can see 8 floors because the cleaning process is not completed). The city, which is thought to be 85 meters in depth, can be brought down to 50 meters deep.

Properties of Floors

On the first two floors of the underground city there are kitchens, cellars, wine stores and pens. On the third and fourth floors; Living areas, a large church, a conference hall, a school of missionaries, a confessional space and a tunnel. These tunnels are thought to be connected to other underground cities in the region. Especially on the third floor and 9 km long tunnel is thought to be connected to Kaymaklı underground city.
4 people can walk comfortably together in a tunnel of 2 meters in width and 2 meters in height. It is also said to be used for the passage of animals. We can say that the tunnels that we call the oldest metro line of history are made with a really great intelligence.
The fourth and further floors of the city were used as shelters. Some rooms are said to be used as dungeons. In these floors; Water wells, cisterns, tombs, and ventilation chimneys. There are a total of 52 ventilation chimneys.