The Period of the Republic of Turkey
After the announcement of the Republic, a constructive, exciting period “began for Turkish museums. In 1924 it was decided to repair
The Period of the Republic:
After the announcement of the Republic, a constructive, exciting period “began for Turkish museums. In 1924 it was decided to repair Topkapi Palace and open it to the public along with its existing furnishings. The Islamic Museum in Suleymaniye was taken out of the hands of the Trusts and put under the control of the Directorate of Museums. It was reorganized and reopened in 1927 as the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art. Saint Sophia was turned into a museum on the decision of the Council of Ministers in 1934, while the Ethnographic Museum in Ankara was completed and opened in 1928. When the law forcing the closure of the dervish tekkes went into effect in 1925, all objects of value that they contained were moved to the local museums. The Tomb and Dargah (Dervish monastery or retreat} in Konya was opened as a museum in 1926, and new museums were established in Bursa, Adana, Manisa, Izmir, Kayseri, Afyon, Antalya, Pergamon, and Edirne, or the existing ones extended. With the establishment of the Turkish Historical Institute and the Faculty of Languages, History, and Geography, special personnel was trained for the museums, and Turkish museum ship took on a more scientific direction. The first national excavations were conducted at the Roman Baths in Ankara, AhIatlibel, Alacahoyuk, Alisar, and Bogazkoy, and had productive results.
The antiquities uncovered by these excavations were gathered in the Mahmud Pasha Bazaar in Ankara, and thus the Hittite Museum was established. This museum, now known as the Museum of Anatolian Civilisations is among the most important museums of the world.
The Work of the Museums:
The General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums was established in order to carry out the task of recording and classifying all the documents, monuments, and remains of historical, cultural and artistic value, taking measures for their protection, repairing and restoring them, and opening museums in which to exhibit them. This directorate was at first a Department of the Ministry of Education, later attached to the Prime Ministry, and is today attached to the Ministry of Culture. According to the 1974 statistics, the numbers of documents, books, and objects on the inventories of the museums under the control of the General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums, are as follows
Archaeological works 310,368
Ethnographical works 190,482
Coins and Medallions 726,90-5
Tablets (Pottery- inscribed) 97,495
Archive Documents. 33,515
Records of the Canonical Court 8,629
Books in Museum Libraries. 196,391