The history of Istanbul dates back to 300 thousand years ago. The excavations made in the Yarımburgaz cave on the edge of Kucukcekmece Lake are the first traces of human cultures. Neolithic and Chalcolithic people are thought to have lived around this lake during this period. Excavations at various periods found the Lower Paleolithic Age near Dudullu and the Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic ages.
B.C. It is believed that an intensive settlement has begun since 5000 BC especially in Kadikoy Fikirtepe, Çatalca, Dudullu, Ümraniye, Pendik, Davutpaşa, Kilyos and Ambarlı. But the foundation of today’s Istanbul It was laid in the 7th century B.C.
the capital was built by the Emperor Constantine in the 4th century A.D. After that day and for about 16 centuries, it maintained its title of capital in Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman times. At the same time, Istanbul, one of the centers of Christianity with Emperor Constantis, was considered one of the most important cities of Muslims after being conquered by the Ottomans in 1453.
Istanbul before Conquest
Bizantion (A.D. 660 – A.D. 324)
The Megara from Greece came from BC. In the 680s, they crossed the Sea of Marmara and reached Istanbul and founded a city named Halkedon in present Kadikoy. The people of Halkedon, also known as the “Land of the Blind”, were dealing with agriculture. B.C. In the 660s, the Trak-based commanders set up another city in the place where today’s Sarayburnu was another branch of the Mega people who had set out under the leadership of Byzantium. According to the legend, the Megara people, who chose this place in accordance with the teaching of the heroine in the Temple of Delphi, gave the name “Bizantion” to the city, acting in the name of their commanders. It is believed that the locals are fused with the Megara people because it is known that some Thracian communities lived in this area before the Megara people.
Bizantion, suffering many invasions, In 269, it was taken over by the Bithynians. B.C. Frightened by the threat of the Macedonians in 202, Bizantion asked for help from Rome. From this period, the influence of the Roman Empire began in the city, and in 146 BC the city entered the Roman dominance. The city, which prevailed as an administrative entity, later became a part of the Bitinya-Pontus province. Thus, the status of the city state for 700 years has come to an end.
In 73, Bizantion was bound to Rome’s Bithynia-Pontus province. Emperor Vespasianus contributed to the development of the city. When it came to 193, the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus surrounded the Byzantium, which was held by the Partarians, looting the city and destroying the city walls. Afterwards, he rebuilt city walls and city again. He organized the streets with new buildings. He started construction of the hippodrome. In 269, the city was attacked by the Goths this time. Victorious Goths erect their pillars near the seaside. In 313, the Nicomedians took over the city. Constantinus I. won the battle he had with the Nicomedians and took the city back.