Istanbul has been a sacred destination since the beginning of the Muslims’ expeditionary history.
First Muslim Arabs and then Muslim Turks organized expeditions to Istanbul for hundreds of years, some of which surrounded the city. Islam Prophet Hz. Muhammad (S.A.V) proclaimed, Constantine’s conquest and city-conquering commander and troops praised by the soldiers came at the forefront of the incentives to organize these expeditions.
The first expedition of Muslim took place during Hz.Osman’s Caliphate. The turn of the Governor of Syria Hz. Muaviye prepared the first sea expedition targeting Istanbul. With this sea expedition, the Byzantine naval forces were destroyed on the shores of the Phoenicians in 655, the sea route was opened to Muslims.
The first siege of the Muslims in Istanbul, in 668 Hz. Muaviye was the Umayyad Caliphate. Although the army continued to stay beside Kadikoy in the spring of 669, it could not capture the city. The army had to return because of major losses from epidemic diseases. Hz. Who participated in the chief against the advanced age. The Prophet of Muhammad Hz. During this siege Ebu Eyyub El-Ensari fell martyrs and was buried under the walls. After this time, Hz. The new naval ship which Muaviye sent in 673 entered Marmara in 674. However, the siege of 7 years did not reach success.
August 7-16-September 717 in the occupation bin Abd al-Malik command of the siege has also failed. The army in front of Istanbul, on the one hand, weather conditions, hunger and disease, on the other hand, the attacks of the Bulgarian gangs have lost a lot. According to some sources, during this siege Emperor III. Leon turned the mosque into a mansion for the worship of the Muslim prisoners at the request of the commander Mesleme, and after the siege was removed, he moved the city to Mesleme.
The last siege of the Arabs was carried out by the army under the command of Aaron (Harun), son of Abbasi Sultan Al-Mahdi in 781-782. Aaron (Harun) defeated the Byzantine army in Izmit and proceeded to Üsküdar and surrounded the city. At the end of the siege, he returned by signing an agreement with Byzantium. Afterwards, Harun er-Rashid, sitting on Abbasi’s throne, took the title of “Er-Rashid” this time. Apart from these, Muslim Arabs also have military expedition to Istanbul. But none of these subsequent military expedition resulted in encirclement.